The DASS-21 is the short form of the DASS-42, a self-report scale designed to measure the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress. As the three scales of the DASS have been shown to have high internal consistency and to yield meaningful discriminations, the scales should meet the needs of both researchers and clinicians who wish to measure current state or change in state over time (e.g., in the course of treatment). This scale is suitable for clinical and non-clinical settings.

Please read each statement and choose a number 0, 1, 2 or 3 that indicates how much the statement applied to you over the past week. There are no right or wrong answers. Do not spend too much time on any statement.


1. I found it hard to wind down

2. I was aware of dryness of my mouth

3. I couldn’t seem to experience any positive feeling at all

4. I experienced breathing difficulty (eg, excessively rapid breathing, breathlessness in the absence of physical exertion)

5. I found it difficult to work up the initiative to do things

6. I tended to over-react to situations

7. I experienced trembling (eg, in the hands)

8. I felt that I was using a lot of nervous energy

9. I was worried about situations in which I might panic and make a fool of myself

10. I felt that I had nothing to look forward to

11. I found myself getting agitated

12. I found it difficult to relax

13. I felt down-hearted and blue

14. I was intolerant of anything that kept me from getting on with what I was doing

15. I felt I was close to panic

16. I was unable to become enthusiastic about anything

17. I felt I wasn’t worth much as a person

18. I felt that I was rather touchy

19. I was aware of the action of my heart in the absence of physical exertion (eg, sense of heart rate increase, heart missing a beat)

20. I felt scared without any good reason

21. I felt that life was meaningless


Scoring Guide

DASS-21 Scoring Depression Anxiety Stress
Normal 0-4 0-3 0-7
Mild 5-6 4-5 8-9
Moderate 7-10 6-7 10-12
Severe 11-13 8-9 13-16
Extremely Severe 14+ 10+ 17+

Reference:

Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd. Ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.

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